Tuesday, June 16, 2015

Gempa Bumi dan Pengurusan Rekod di Malaysia

Apabila berlakunya gempa bumi di Ranau baru-baru ini, saya melihat ini sebagai satu cabaran baru negara dalam menangani krisis dan bencana. Sememangnya ini bukanlah gempa bumi pertama di negara, tetapi ianya merupakan gempa bumi yang terkuat. Setelah membaca laporan dari The Star yang memetik kata-kata seorang Professor Madya dari Jabatan Geologi Universiti Malaya bahawa ancient fault line di Kuala Lumpur boleh diaktifkan kembali hasil dari tekanan tetronic, ianya sebenarnya merupakan satu tanda bahawa agensi dan jabatan berkaitan perlu memasukkan elemen gempa di dalam pelan tindakan bencana mereka.

Jika menggunakan skala pengurusan risiko, gempa mungkin diletakkan di dalam ruangan low probability tetapi kemungkinannya tetap ada, dan ruangan impak mungkin boleh diletakkan skala dari rendah ke sederhana. Tetapi selepas kes di Ranau, saya mencadangkan ruangan probability dinaikkan tahapnya dan ruangan impak diletakkan di bawah kategori skala yang lebih tinggi.

Jika agensi lain melihat perkara ini dari sudut keselamatan manusia, saya melihat risiko gempa ini perlu diperluaskan juga ke pengurusan rekod dan dokumen. Sememangnya apabila berlaku satu bencana berskala besar seperti gempa, nyawa dan keselamatan manusia perlu diutamakan, tetapi ini tidak bermakna keselamatan rekod dan dokumen perlu diabaikan.

Rekod dan dokumen, baik dalam bentuk kertas mahupun elektronik amat diperlukan untuk menyambung kembali operasi sesuatu agensi, jabatan, syarikat dan organisasi selepas gempa. Malang semakin bertimpa apabila selepas kejadian gempa, sesuatu organisasi tidak dapat menyambung kembali operasinya. Sudahlah mungkin kehilangan staf,  kehilangan juga bisnes atau operasi jabatan terganggu atau lebih parah lagi, terpaksa ditutup.

Pada pendapat saya, inilah masa terbaik untuk revise pengurusan bencana untuk rekod dengan memasukkan elemen gempa sebagai salah satu 'potential disaster'.  

Dibawah merupakan laporan dari akhbar The Star Online berkenaan probability Kuala Lumpur dilanda gempa.

Chance of KL quake remote
Published: Monday June 15, 2015 MYT 12:00:00 AM 

Updated: Monday June 15, 2015 MYT 8:46:19 AM

PETALING JAYA: Although chances are remote, experts agree that the possibility of the big one hitting Kuala Lumpur cannot be ruled out.
Universiti Malaya Geology Department Assoc Prof Mustaffa Kamal Shuib said although Malaysia was located outside the Pacific Ring of Fire, an ancient fault line under Kuala Lumpur could reactivate due to tectonic pressure.
Three quarters of Earth’s volcanoes and 90% of earthquakes occur in the Ring of Fire, which also cuts across Indonesia and the Philippines.
Mustaffa said an earthquake happens when a fault line snaps and the vibrations at the epicentre is felt on the surface.

According to him, earthquakes have been recorded at other fault lines in peninsular Malaysia including Bukit Tinggi, Pahang (between 2007 and 2009), which run almost parallel to the KL fault line.
He said the Bukit Tinggi quakes, recorded between 1 and 3.6 on the Richter scale, were minor but a strong one at the epicentre there could devastate Kuala Lumpur.
Such a possibility was slim, said Mustaffa, adding that the strongest earthquake in the peninsula, which happened in Baling, Kedah, was recorded at 3.8 in 2013.
Advocating the need for preparedness, Mustaffa said he was not raising the issue to cause panic.
“I want to raise public awareness and get authorities to conduct studies on how better to protect buildings and high-rises in Kuala Lumpur,” he said.
Some structures in Malaysia, including the second Penang Bridge, are built to withstand earthquakes. The bridge reportedly can withstand tremors of 7.5 on the Richter scale.

Dhaka University professor of geology Dr Aftab Alam Khan said he respected Mustaffa’s views and agreed that inactive fault lines could reactivate.
But he said peninsula Malaysia moved very slowly, between 11mm and 13mm annually, due to seismic pressure from the adjoining Ring of Fire and a massive earthquake was unlikely.
Dr Aftab, who is a research fellow at Universiti Malaya, said the Indian plate move up to 50mm every year and this could cause massive earthquakes in the Himalayas region.
“Seismogenic studies on KL’s fault line must be conducted in order to determine if earthquakes could happen,” he said.
Malaysian Meteorological Department (Earthquake and Tsunami Centre) officer Azmi Atan said there had never been a quake here and their data suggested fault lines in most places in peninsula Malaysia were inactive.
“But we cannot deny it can happen,” he said, adding that to date, Kuala Lumpur mostly feel tremors from massive earthquakes in Sumatra, which had very active fault lines.
Azmi said earthquakes could be detected but not predicted.
“The bottom line is that we are not an earthquake-prone country,” he said.

Source : http://www.thestar.com.my/News/Nation/2015/06/15/Chance-of-KL-quake-remote-Don-Malaysia-not-earthquakeprone-but-ancient-fault-lines-could-reactivate/

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